Only the sub, sid, acr and amr claims are pass through. I get more claims from the up-party by using log claims trace. What am I doing wrong?

By default an up-party should pass through all claims to the down-party if Forward Claims has a *. Up-party default pass through all claims to the down-party You can also make the down-party (OpenID Connect client) add all claims in the access token issued to the application (not default).
Navigating to the down-party then click Show advanced settings and add a * in the Issue claims field. Optionally also include all claims in the issued ID token. Make the down-party issue all claims

Way am I unable to login for a moment when I change the certificate container types to 'Key Vault renewed self-signed certificates'?

The first certificate have to be generated by Key Vault before the track can perform logins again. Thereafter the certificate is renewed without seamlessly.

I am unable to logout of a client using OIDC if I login and theafter changed the certificate container type.

The problem occurs if the OIDC logout require an ID Token before accepting logout. In this case the ID Token is invalid because the container type and there by the signing certificate have changed. The problem will occur in the FoxIDs Controle Client. You need to close the browser and start over.